Tri Talk HomepageTri Talk EventsTri Talk ForumsBlogsTri Talk TrainingTri TradeTriPlayerWikiTeam Tri Talk
Another LT Threshold topic - doh!
Goto page 1, 2  Next
 
Post new topic   Reply to topic    TriTalk.co.uk Forum Index -> Training
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
Shaggy.




Joined: 08 Dec 2005
Posts: 2680
Location: Weybridge

PostPosted: Tue Feb 21, 2006 9:43 pm    Post subject: Another LT Threshold topic - doh! Reply with quote

Apologies if this is a dim question, but I'm a newbie, (6 months training under my belt), so all I've really learnt so far is how little I know about Training.

I did a sort of LT Threshold test on the turbo today. I did a swim before hand which is my excuse for the poor results (It might not be a great excuse, but it's the only one I've got so I'm sticking with it Smile).

From this test I estimate, very roughly of course, that my LT threshold is somewhere between 150 and 155 bpm with an output of about 250 watts. I went up to about 280 watts for the last couple of minutes of the test, but my heart rate stubbornly stayed below 160 bpm, even though my legs were burning nicely.

When I do my long-ish rides on the road (2 to 3 hours) my heart rate tends to average about 152-155 bpm, peaking sometimes at about 176 bpm, and on these rides I'm taking it relatively easy - well not killing myself anyway. For my shorter 40-60 minute rides my average heart rate is anywhere between 155 and 165 bpm.

This really confuses me - I would expect my heart rate to be higher on the turbo than the road as the intensity is greater, (although no cars to chase!), and the temperature also. But instead it's lower Question I also wouldn't expect my LT threshold to be as low as 150-155bpm given that this is my average for long-ish easy rides on the road Question

Am I missing something obvious here Question Has anyone else experienced the same thing Question , or am I just strange Question Actually, no need to answer the last question - I know the answer to that one Nerd [/b]
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Apollo_Tim




Joined: 28 Feb 2005
Posts: 3377
Location: Dublin

PostPosted: Tue Feb 21, 2006 10:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'll leave the dissection of the details to the experts here, but I have experienced this, or what I think it is, too.

You say you're legs are burning even though your HR isn't too high - since you do endurance rides, maybe you haven't done much cycling at LT level? This will put a different stress on your legs: while your heart and lungs are used to higher HR work through running and swimming (I am assuming, pleae correct me), your legs may not be used to pushing a big gear at high rpm for a "long" (in relative terms) period of time.

I had the same experience in a turbo session this evening, I could have pushed my HR higher, but my legs don't have the strength to pedal that bit faster - I could have done more repeats, but my legs just couldn't hack even at a normal rpm (90-95) because I don't have the strength.

So am I suggesting: big gear work, hill reps, more intervals sessions (NB: I am a cycling novice, so have your salt ready!).
_________________
Just breakin' a take

Nice guys come second
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
SolarEnergy




Joined: 18 Sep 2005
Posts: 2251
Location: Quebec, Canada

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 1:30 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

What was your protocol for assessing your HR at LT ?
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
redbiker




Joined: 24 May 2004
Posts: 6074

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 6:56 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
I would expect my heart rate to be higher on the turbo than the road as the intensity is greater


Do you have a power meter for measuring intensity during the road and turbo sessions?

How do you know that the turbo sessions ARE at a higher intensity?
_________________
Bike Science - Retul Precision Bike Fitting
BRISTOL - RICHMOND (N. YORKS) - DERBY
Cerveo - Kuota - Focus - Argon 18 - Kinesis - Legend - Parlee
www.bike-science.com
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail Visit poster's website
Shaggy.




Joined: 08 Dec 2005
Posts: 2680
Location: Weybridge

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 10:01 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Apollo_Tom,

Your correct that I haven't yet done much cycling, on the turbo at least, close to LT level. Rationally I know it takes time to build up endurance, but in my irrational moments I can't understand why it won't happen today.

SolarEnergy,

The test I used was to start at a low wattage (140 watts in this case) and then increase the wattage by 20 every 2 mins, noting down my heart rate at the end of each segment. I basically did this till I got a pretty good burn in the legs and was sure that I couldn't continue at that intensity for long. Based on this I estimated my LT to be about 30 watts shy of this, based on perceived effort (working the legs quite hard and getting a slight burn - and also judging that I could only keep this effort up for approx 20 mins.). I used an I-Magic for the readings, so the accuracy of the wattage is up for debate, but probably not too far out.

Redbiker,

No power meter for me I'm afraid; maybe father christmas will bring me one next year, but looking at the current prices I'll never be that good. The turbo readings come from an I-Magic, which although not accurate is supposedly in the ball-park. You might have a point about the turbo sessions not necessarily being at a higher intensity. There's a lot happening out on the roads to take my mind off the level of effort, and obviously a greater variation of effort with the stops and starts, the hills, and the wind. I'm sure my perception is different on the road. However, I would expect my heart rate to vary accordingly with the variation in effort, which it obviously does as I usually get quite a high peak heart rate. Where I'm confused is that on average my heart rate is equal to or higher than my estimated LT on the turbo. Maybe all the lorries are scaring me Crying or Very sad
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Sub3Dad




Joined: 04 Jan 2006
Posts: 591
Location: Stockholm, Sweden

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 4:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

What you did was not a LT test.

Do an all-out 60 min TT on your trainer, keeping an even effort for the duration.

Average your HR/Power for the last 20 minutes - this is the closest approximation of LT HR/Power that can be achieved without Blood Lactate testing.

The 'old' way of approximating was the Conconi test - but with the advent of power meters, this has been shown to be a _very_ poor test.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Swim Smooth




Joined: 22 Aug 2005
Posts: 1487
Location: UK and Australia

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 6:52 pm    Post subject: Lactate Testing Reply with quote

Interesting topic thread this IShaggy, and welcome to the world of triathlon competition,

Essentially what Tim has said about whether it is your legs giving out before your heart or vice versa could be a factor (with respect to your lower than expected heart rate) and also what Trev_00 has said about the "validity" of the test for your purpose is also quite true. Actually, its not really a case of whether the test was "valid" per se but more like what I'm sure Solar Energy and Trev_00 are both about to expand and comment on with respect to your chosen test protocol.

Essentially the test protocol you have used is what would be termed a "ramp" or "step" test (i.e. the basis of the Conconi test as highlighted by Trev_00), in that the session gets harder and harder until you reach a state of fatigue. Most sports labs would have you starting this at about 100 watts and progressing every 3-5 mins by 30 or 40W up until exhaustion (usually they prefer to have females ramping up by 30W and and males by 40W). At the end of every increment they would sample blood lactate, heart rate, ask you for your rating of perceived exertion and probably also perform a gas analysis to determine the relative amounts of oxygen consumed .vs. CO2 expelled and from this be able to determine the substrate you are using to fuel your body at that time (e.g. fat/carbs as a ratio) and to also calculate your VO2 max ultimately. A lot of information and like Trev_00 says, only really available through a specific sports lab which could be costly (but worthwhile IMHO). The reason I'm expanding upon this is because I just want to discuss a couple of your 'zones' that we have already begun to mention, specifically LT...

As you increase your exercise intensity from rest to maximal and analyse solely your heart rate (HR) as you do this, most people's 'curve' expressed graphically would read reasonably "postively linear", such that as you increase your effort your heart rate will increase in direct relation up until a point whereby you close down upon your maximal HR and at this point intensity (speed, power etc) will be able to be increased marginally for a very short time before you collapse with exhaustion (don't be on a treadmill when you do this!!), whereas your HR will "top out". This would show you a curve (as I'm sure you've done with your first test) which looks like a 45 degree line which rounds off towards the top as your reach your maximum heart rate.

Before we move on I would suggest that one factor which resulted in a lower HR than expected at "LT" was exactly as you have hinted at...the swim before hand may have left you more fatigued than you thought and a sure sign that you are still recovering from a session is the inability to raise your HR as you would like. Another factor could be what you have eaten, or more importantly WHEN you last ate...low blood sugar may also result in a lower HR than expected.

OK, so now to your protocol for assessing "LT". Firstly I appreciate that you haven't got power cranks or a fancy blood lactate testing facility to use at the drop of a hat, however assessing "LT" from pure HR data is quite tricky, and just like 220-minus your age is a "sketchy" way of determining your Max HR, so too is this test. What we need to clarify first is what exactly do you mean by "LT" or "Lactate Threshold"? If we look at that same graphical representation of your test but assume that we had been measuring blood lactate at the same time as recording your HR, we would see a very different line plotted on the graph to your HR 'curve'. As you increase your effort from rest to maximal you're blood lactate (BLa) would express two very definate "inflection points" at which point the amount of lactic acid in the blood stream starts to increase quite rapidly with any further increase in intensity; after the second inflection point BLa will rise exponentially and almost look like the complete opposite of your HR 'curve' at this point. The first of these two inflection points usually occurs at ~2.0mmol/L of BLa (milli-mols of BLa per litre) and is often termed your Aerobic OR Lactate* Threshold as this is the intensity you would (in theory) be able to maintain continuously subject to regular fueling and hydration. In terms of what it feels like physically, you're at that point where if you're out running with a mate or cycling in a group and someone just starts pushing you past this point it gives you the sensation of "hey up! hang on there, I'm having to work now!", your breathing rate increases, sweat rate noticeably picks up and you'll start to feel some discomfort the further past this point you are 'pushed'. Moving on up to the second inflection point at ~4.0 - 7.0 mmol/L and you have reached your anaerobic threshold which I believe is what you were trying to find or had found? This is typically the intensity that you would race at for a sprint or olympic distance race if you were in very good condition...others would find it very difficult to maintain such a level for more than 30-45mins. Once past this point there is very little room for increase in intensity, but again this depends upon your fitness level.

What is important with respect to determining any of these levels is once you have the data, what are you going to do with it to help further your improvement? Again, going back to the two 'curves' we have just 'drawn', your aim should be to shift the two inflection points (on the BLa curve) to the right, thereby implying that at a given intensity your body would have adapted itself through your training regimen to prouduce less lactic acid at the same intensity as you did 4-6 weeks ago or whenever, i.e. the same power output on the bike feels easier - OR - you could say that at the same BLa concentration you'd be able to sustain a higher intensity than before and thus be moving faster. Either way is good news. So how do you get this "shift to the right"? Well, firstly its important to be confident that you know at what point both Aerobic and Anaerobic Threshold occurs on both the bike and run (testing for this in the pool is a little trickier) and from this you can then work to set your training based upon these known points, whether that be through a known intensity, HR, power output or speed at these points. Essentially the advice that Trev_00 has given you based on what you have available to you is great stuff...a 60min TT with the last 20mins determining power and HR average. You can then use this data to set your appropriate training 'zones' and what you should do when and for what purpose. The "buzz-word" in the sports physiology world right now is "massaging your thresholds", which essentially means doing the majority of your quality workouts at intensities just slightly above and slightly below your threshold point and actually incorporate both into a given session, i.e if you have determined that your threshold is 230W, you could do a turbo session as 4 x (6mins at 220W, 6mins at 240W, 3mins easy spin and repeat), or 2 x (25mins as 5mins @ 210W, 5mins @ 250W, 5mins back to 210W, 5mins @ 250W, 5mins @ 210W again before an easy 5mins spin and then repeat). Just a couple of ideas, but hopefully usefully for you IShaggy!

So, to summarise, make sure you are confident that what you are measuring is what you want to measure, that you're measuring it correctly and that you know what you want to do with the results and then go about structuring regular testing every 6-8 weeks to see if you're on track. There's a lot to be said for testing of this manner, but be warned...you still need to get out into the "real world" and translate what you do in testing to what you want to do when you race.

Good luck and have a great season!

Paul

* The terms Aerobic and Lactate Threshold (LT) are often used interchangeably like this and sometimes as a result of this LT is often incorrectly interchanged with Anaerobic Threshold also, which can lead to confusion. What is important is that you are aware that there are two inflection points and how both these points can be worked seperately to enhance various aspects of your performance. One other point is that a "sprinter's" BLa curve will look very different from an endurance athlete's curve, in that the sprinter's aerobic threshold will occur at quite a low intensity (due to reduced economy at slower speeds) and his / her anaerobic threshold will occur at quite a high level (due to the type of training they follow - it is not uncommon for 400m track runners to display BLa concentrations after a race of between 18 and 25mmol/L which is massive!); an trained endurance athlete will display inflection points which actually occur relatively close together and the very best endurance athletes will have both threshold points at very high relative percentages of their maximal pace, particularly their aerobic threshold. This sort of physiological "profiling" allows physiologists to communicate with the athlete's coach in such a way that the coach is totally aware of what that athlete's strengths and weaknesses are and how to go about working on them.
_________________
Longer isn't always better if you are lacking rhythm and timing!.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail Visit poster's website
SolarEnergy




Joined: 18 Sep 2005
Posts: 2251
Location: Quebec, Canada

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 7:20 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks Paul,

I was about to answer, but you did it better than I could have done.

Cheers Smile
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Swim Smooth




Joined: 22 Aug 2005
Posts: 1487
Location: UK and Australia

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 7:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

SolarEnergy wrote:
Thanks Paul,

I was about to answer, but you did it better than I could have done.

Cheers Smile


Sorry mate...I knew that this is what you were hinting at!

Cheers

Paul
_________________
Longer isn't always better if you are lacking rhythm and timing!.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail Visit poster's website
SolarEnergy




Joined: 18 Sep 2005
Posts: 2251
Location: Quebec, Canada

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 8:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Swim Smooth wrote:
SolarEnergy wrote:
Thanks Paul,

I was about to answer, but you did it better than I could have done.

Cheers Smile


Sorry mate...I knew that this is what you were hinting at!

Cheers

Paul
No fault mate. I read your post twice ! Smile
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Shaggy.




Joined: 08 Dec 2005
Posts: 2680
Location: Weybridge

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 8:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks Paul, great reply as usual!

I like the sound of the turbo sessions you suggest; They sound a lot more interesting than some of the sessions I've been doing lately. I will definitely give them a go.

I did a 30 min TT a couple of months ago - when I first got the turbo. I averaged 258 watts in the last 20 mins, although my heart rate shot up to 210 (think I was a little too close to the TV and got some interference). I'm pretty sure I couldn't have kept this up for 60 mins though, which makes me think that around 240 watts is about right for my anaerobic threshold. I know this isn't accurate but I think it's a good enough ball-park figure for me to use as a yard-stick.

In restrospect it sort of makes sense that my legs are giving out at a relatively low heart rate. After all, I've been training my heart up to 9 times a week over the last 6 months, but I've only been training my cycling legs 2 to 3 times a week. It may take some time for them to catch up!

I also think that the inconsistences I'm experiencing between the turbo and the road might have something to do with adrenalin. I'm a bit of an adrenalin junky and my inner child tends to come out to play when I'm on the bike!

Thanks again,
Ross

PS. Received the Swim Smooth DVDs this morning. Think I'm going to be up late tonight Very Happy
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Swim Smooth




Joined: 22 Aug 2005
Posts: 1487
Location: UK and Australia

PostPosted: Wed Feb 22, 2006 9:19 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

IShaggy wrote:
Thanks Paul, great reply as usual!

I like the sound of the turbo sessions you suggest; They sound a lot more interesting than some of the sessions I've been doing lately. I will definitely give them a go.

In restrospect it sort of makes sense that my legs are giving out at a relatively low heart rate. After all, I've been training my heart up to 9 times a week over the last 6 months, but I've only been training my cycling legs 2 to 3 times a week. It may take some time for them to catch up!



No problem Ross, pleased to be of assistance where I can be. If you drop me an email to paul@swimsmooth.com I'll send you a few more structured turbo sessions to keep you 'sane'...they're not rocket science but variety is key I find with turbo sessions...that and a good Tour de France DVD to watch and a Metallica sound track blasting in the background!!

The more I think about it, the more either a lack of strength, fatigue from your swim session or possibly not enough to eat may well be the cause of what you experienced. One thing I forgot to mention in that last message was that most lab test require 24- 48 hrs of no or light training before them so that fatigue should never be an issue...worth considering for your next one.

Keep us posted.

Cheers

Paul
_________________
Longer isn't always better if you are lacking rhythm and timing!.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail Visit poster's website
Apollo_Tim




Joined: 28 Feb 2005
Posts: 3377
Location: Dublin

PostPosted: Thu Feb 23, 2006 1:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This is hi-jacking the thread a little, but in order to boost leg strength-endurance (over CV work) what is useful?

I'm guessing big gear work, hill reps, single leg drills... anything else?
_________________
Just breakin' a take

Nice guys come second
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Swim Smooth




Joined: 22 Aug 2005
Posts: 1487
Location: UK and Australia

PostPosted: Thu Feb 23, 2006 2:55 pm    Post subject: SE on the Bike Reply with quote

Apollo_Tim wrote:
This is hi-jacking the thread a little, but in order to boost leg strength-endurance (over CV work) what is useful?

I'm guessing big gear work, hill reps, single leg drills... anything else?


Good question Tim and I don't think that its really hijacking the thread...you identified that it could have been Mr Shaggy's legs giving out before his heart and lungs and as such I think this is quite a nice poignant question.

My first recommendation would be that with respect to any sort of strength work (be it specifically on the bike or in the gym) should be preceeded by a block of foundation work of somewhere between 4 and 6 weeks (maybe longer...probably a better estimation of the time required is to look at your training history or "age" of the last few seasons). This foundation work would be done riding relatively small gears at somewhere between 85 and 100rpm and keeping HR below about 75% for the majority of your sessions. Having said that I am well in favour of incorporating short intervals of 'speed' and 'power' work throughout the course of the season, so rather than your training being very much blocked to pure endurance / strength / power / speed for 4 - 8 weeks each block, each block or 'phase' should incorporate varying degrees of the other phases, the balance of which would be determined by the point in the season or how long you had been training.

So, lets assume that you had spent 4 to 6 weeks familiarising yourself and your body to the rigours of training again, you had established the neuro-muscular pathways to facilitate coordination of movement on the bike, and generally you feel like you have 'prepared' yourself with a decent level of base fitness to move to the next stage, we can then look to sensibly and safely move forward to some specific SE (Strength Endurance) work. As Mr Shaggy appears to have got this with ~6 months of training under his belt doing the sessions he says he's been doing, I would be confident to suggest that he was ready to move to this phase especially if we had identified that leg strength were an issue with his riding. Any stalwart cyclist will tell you that it normally takes 2 to 5 years to develop the strength on the bike to allow you to be in a position whereby the next limiting factor to your progression would be your CV system. I think depending on the type of regimen you are following that you could probably bring this forward a little bit, but for all those newbie triathletes out there its definately worth considering this time frame before you start to panic that your training is going "nowhere"...be patient it will come.

So, before we talk about the actual sessions you could do, first let me give you an imagery exercise that I give to all the guys and girls I take for a spin class or turbo session...it sounds really dumb, but I've found it works quite nicely. One big consideration for any SE work that you will do is that the increased force that you will be applying to each pedal stroke, if done with poor form may lead to injuries, as such its worth building into any session progressively even after you have done your warm-up. Without going into the mechanics of an efficient pedal stroke here, one of the best things to imagine is to "hold your upper body still" whilst driving your legs like pistons (be it in a cyclical manner though - "no chompers here please!"). The imagery exercise that I recommend is to think back to Neo (aka Keano Reeves) in the film "the Matrix." The director used some pretty funky effects in that film to give the impression that Neo was under total, relaxed control as he was fighting the bad guys...his core / trunk was totally still and relaxed whilst his arms and legs were going like wild fire, delivering powerful punches and avoiding bullets like it was the easiest thing in the world. Now whilst it may seem like a bit of a "jump" to relate a sci-fi film to what you do out on the road or on the turbo trainer listening / watching Coach Troy yelling at you...I recommend you give that imagery or visualization exercise a go and see what you think. Key points are to stay calm and controlled and to keep everything from the hips upwards perfectly still as you are pushing the big gears. Some of my former coaches (Robin Brew and Richard Hobson) used to suggest that you could ride a hill with your hands resting on the top of your handlebars without pulling on them at all...this would force us to isolate the quads, hammies, calfs and glutes to work on driving us up the hills...a very effective exercise, but be careful (try it on the turbo first for the sake of falling off!). If you look at any really good cyclist (particularly from behind) you'll see that they do this all the time...no matter how hard they're going, everything other than their legs is calm and relaxed like they're out for a leisurely ride.

Anyway, enough waffle...what sessions could you do to work effectively during your SE phase? When I was at Bath University I was very fortunate to have been mentored by a guy named John Gregory (a senior physiologist and former World Cup MTBer from Tasmania) who knew a thing or three about good session prescription based upon lab analysis. At 63kgs (at the time!) I wasn't known as a powerful athlete on the bike...strong on the hills, but crap on the flats. As most of the drafting races that we were doing required a good turn of power and also the ability to sustain good wattage during a breakaway or chase-pack "chain gang", this was an area John worked on with me. The single best session I remember doing with John was finding a hill of approximately 4 to 6 % gradient (pretty gentle) but that was long enough for me to ride up for between 8 and 10 minutes. This was all done in the saddle, at a large gear (53 x ~ 16) and cadence of about 60-72rpm (but no higher). The gearing is an arbitrary factor for this session to be fair, what is important is that you have selected a gear ratio that would permit you to ride at about 80% HR and the suggested cadence without becoming scrappy with your form. We would do maybe 3 to 6 hill repeats with a gentle ride back down the hill. I always came away from these sessions feeling like superman. What you'll notice is that (just like IShaggy's OP) is that the strength of the legs will be your limiting factor, not your CV system, and as such you shouldn't actually be able to push your HR above 80% anyway as its all happening in the legs.

Another good session is one that Bill Black (Spencer Smith's old coach) used to have us doing (and still my favourite turbo trainer session). Essentially after your warm-up you do a pyramid going up to 6 minutes in 1 minute increments (e.g. 1,2,3,4,5,6,5,4,3,2,1) - these are performed continuously (no break per se), but each block (e.g. the 3 or 4 minute section) is divided itself into 4 equal parts (e.g. 3 minutes would be 4 x 45 seconds and 4 minutes would be 4 x 60 seconds). Everyone of these block's subdivisions would follow the same format, i.e. easy - moderate - hard - recovery (where recovery was easier than 'easy'). The easy block would be done at ~70-75% and 95rpm; the moderate block (or SE block) would be done at ~80% and 65-75rpm; the hard block would be done at ~85-90% and 95-110rpm; the recovery block would just be an easy spin and chance to rehydrate (so effectively this is your recovery section). It is such a great session and time really flies! Going back to what I posted above about always having a small amount of endurance / strength / power / speed throughout the season no matter what stage you're at in your periodisation, encapsulates the fundamentals behind this session perfectly and I stringly recommend you give it a go!

Hope this helps?

Cheers

Paul
_________________
Longer isn't always better if you are lacking rhythm and timing!.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail Visit poster's website
Sherlock




Joined: 06 Jan 2005
Posts: 572

PostPosted: Thu Feb 23, 2006 9:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

what fantastic answers thanks
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic    TriTalk.co.uk Forum Index -> Training All times are GMT
Goto page 1, 2  Next
Page 1 of 2
  Share
 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum





Home | About TT | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Advertising | Contact TT
Copyright ©2003-2015 TriTalk®.co.uk. All rights reserved.