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A General Guide to Strength Training for Triathlon
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Elev8Performance




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 24, 2008 11:23 am    Post subject: A General Guide to Strength Training for Triathlon Reply with quote

As promised below are some basic tips for your strength training. As previously stated this is not body building, this is training using resistance to increase strength and endurance not non-functional strength. This is a very general guide, obviously when working with an individual things are very focused on them and may differ slightly to the below. However in my view by just doing the basics below, this will certainly aid your triathlon performance. I hope this will be stickied.

Do two sessions per week - generally what is excepted as the minimum to see significant returns

Use free weights (dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells, disks) do not use machines. This is because free weights require greater stability and control due to them having more planes of movement, i.e they can go up and down, back and forth, pitch left and right. Machines generally will only go back and forth. The only exception is cable machines as these can be very useful for performing sport specific movements and require more control in comparison to other machines.

Perform sessions which are whole body, i.e not a 'back and chest day' etc. This is because you are training for strength during sport specific movements, not for a big chest using movements that are non sport specific.

Sessions should consist of multi-joint movements (lifts involving movements around more than one joint, i.e elbow and shoulders or hips, knees and ankles). This is because movements performed during sports like triathlon are multijoint (running, swimming, cycling).

Start with mastering basic exercises like the squat, lunge and deadlift before moving onto more advanced and specific exercises like single leg squats, stiff leg deadlifts, power cleans etc.

When lifting your back should always be flat or slightly hyperflexed NOT FLEXED. To do this keep your chest out and shoulders back, bending at the hips and knees when relevant. Perform flexibility training, many people will have ankle and hip mobility issues which will decrease range of movement and increase risk of you using bad technique.

Over your training year your strength training should continue, if you only do a couple of months then the improvements will not be maintained once you stop. Therefore as a general guide your training year should be structured like so:

- Following the main competitive season have your usual 1-2 weeks rest. Then your strength training should involve each session containing about 20 sets of exercises, performed in sets of 3 for 10-12 reps max (maximal weight which you can lift until failure over 3 sets) with 90 sec rest periods. Lifting should be done in a controlled manner. Exercises should be simple with heavy focus on technique, this period prepares your bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles for heavy lifting later in the cycle. Do this for 4-6 weeks increasing the weights lifted during exercises if you are finding you are no longer lifting until failure.

- Next sessions should consist of about 18-20 sets of exercises over 3-4 sets performing 4-5 reps, thus heavy weights with rest periods of 2-3 mins. This period should last for 8 weeks increasing the weights lifted during exercises if you are finding you are no longer lifting until failure. This period focuses on increasing maximal strength which is a critical foundation.

- Doing the same as above, however rest periods should now be about 1 min. This period should last for 8-10 weeks and is focused on increasing strength endurance, i.e your ability to be able to produce large forces without full recovery. Based on your technical ability and improvements exercises can become more triathlon specific. For example, if you have mastered the squat you could now introduce split squats.

- The above session should be continued for the remainder of the year during one of your weekly sessions to ensure strength endurance is maintained. Your other session should consist of work on improving general muscular endurance. To do so perform around 20 sets of exercises per session using sets of 3-4 per exercise and reps between 14-20. To ensure progressive overload, you can increase the reps from e.g. 14 to 16 when your muscular endurance has improved to ensure lifting until failure. Exercises here should be performed in a fast but controlled manner with an increase in more triathlon specific exercises if your are lifting technically sound at your current level.

- The above cycle should continue until the end of your training year, with a 1-2 week taper before key races (by reducing number of sets per session).

- ALWAYS SPEND SEVERAL MINUTES WARMING UP USING DYNAMIC MOVEMENTS. ALWAYS PERFORM A WARM UP SET BEFORE EACH SET OF EXERCISES USING A LIGHT WEIGHT, TO ACUSTOM YOURSELF TO THE MOVEMENT PATTERN AND TECHNIQUE.
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TimB




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 24, 2008 12:30 pm    Post subject: Re: A General Guide to Strength Training for Triathlon Reply with quote

Good & useful post, thanks.

Just one comment to make:
Elev8Performance wrote:
Use free weights (dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells, disks) do not use machines. This is because free weights require greater stability and control due to them having more planes of movement, i.e they can go up and down, back and forth, pitch left and right. Machines generally will only go back and forth. The only exception is cable machines as these can be very useful for performing sport specific movements and require more control in comparison to other machines.

I'd suggest that free weights are only any good if you use them properly; they can be dangerous if you don't know what you're doing, use too much weight or have bad technique. Coaching for technique is essential. Machines are also good for specific muscle groups and/or if you're recovering from injury.

Also, a decent warm-up and cool-down is essential - get on the aerobic machines (a rower is great for all-over w/u & c/d) and "spin" easily!
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Elev8Performance




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 24, 2008 12:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Although I agree techinque is essential, most people are capable of performing simple exercises to begin with (e.g. bent over row, alternate arm chest press)

However, as we are not looking at targeting specific muscle groups (we are training movements which involve multiple muscles) machines are not good. Also in relation to return from injury I think machines can be worse as they can often push someone beyond their safe range of movement. Free weights are very safe if you are correct and stringent with technique and use a load which is not going to compromise an injury (e.g. I am currently doing so following my illiotibial band injury).
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Robbie




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 24, 2008 12:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Elev8Performance wrote:
Although I agree techinque is essential, most people are capable of performing simple exercises to begin with (e.g. bent over row, alternate arm chest press)

However, as we are not looking at targeting specific muscle groups (we are training movements which involve multiple muscles) machines are not good. Also in relation to return from injury I think machines can be worse as they can often push someone beyond their safe range of movement. Free weights are very safe if you are correct and stringent with technique and use a load which is not going to compromise an injury (e.g. I am currently doing so following my illiotibial band injury).


What he said, machines are evil and should be burnt!
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Elev8Performance




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 24, 2008 6:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

P.S. I have been informed if enough people ask this thread to be stickied, it will be. That way it stays up for people to read without disappearing into the bowels of the forum So please ask the moderators if you don't mind Smile
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younggun




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 24, 2008 7:58 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

No mention of core work?

If someone is weight training regularly (all year round as you suggest) and their strength has plateaued (as measured by weight lifted), would you suggest they need to work harder in each session or go to the gym more often to improve their triathlon performances?

Do you suggest this as relevant to someone naturally strong, or someone with a body building background?

Can 20 reps really increase endurance compared to a cyclist performing 16000 revolutions over a 3 hour ride? What is your understanding of what causes the onset of fatigue (lack of endurance) in an endurance event?

Have you noticed how small the leg muscles are on a TDF rider versus a body builders?

I'm not going to hang around on this thread and cause biff but I'm curious to hear your logic on those points for the benefit of all.
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Welsh Moz




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PostPosted: Thu Jul 24, 2008 10:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I agree completely with the things in bold. Especially the points about training 'movements' rather than 'muscle groups' and using free weights rather than machines.

Although I would also agree with Tim about being taught correct form on free weight exercises. In my experience, a significant number of people are unable to perform even simple exercises with correct form initially, and even those who can sometimes deteriorate with time as mistakes start to creep in and become exaggerated.

As for the last few paragraphs about training plans, I realise you've only provided a brief overview but I think you've been far too simplistic and unfortunately quite misleading. Training plans should be tailored to the individual, dependant on their needs. For example, my training consists of a lot of strength-endurance work because I already have a good base strength but am unable to maintain good form for long periods of time, in running especially. A weaker person may need to focus on maximum strength training. Somebody else may need to work on general injury prevention. Someone else on core strength. Someone else on rehab. Someone on coordination. And any number of people on some combination of these and other things. Somebody new to strength training and exercise in general will see benefits from a simple plan, but for a more seasoned athlete something more tailored will be required.

Again, I realise that this is just a brief overview but it's got me thinking that it'd be fantastic to have a comprehensive guide to strength training for triathlon here. I think some of what you've written is a great start, but there is A LOT more to be added in order to make it comprehensive. Most of my training knowledge is around power sports rather than endurance sports but I will try to add some info when I get some spare time. In the meantime I think the following topics would be good ones to cover during this thread, just off the top of my head:

-Training guidelines for different general goals (core strength, max strength, strength-endurance etc etc)
-Correct form on free weight exercises
-Useful exercises specific to each discipline
-Common injuries and prevention
-Training safety
-Warm up & stretching (covered partly in another thread already)
-Periodisation
-Evidence for the usefulness of strength training

I'm sure there's more that could be added...
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Elev8Performance




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PostPosted: Fri Jul 25, 2008 10:58 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi,

First of all it is impossible for me to put together individualised programmes as how can I for every person on here? It was either a general approach or nothing, in my experience a general approach is better than one that is all over the place. I do focus heavily on individualised programmes from training to nutrition (in fact this is one reason why I have been recently appointed in a role), but I couldn't do so without speaking, meeting and testing the athletes (e.g. functional movement screen). I don't think anything in the periodized plan is misleading, its simple, understandable and has sound rationale.

In my mind, a more comprehensive review would still be too general, I have barely scraped the surface here, not even slightly.

In relation to core work it should be part of your programme, trained like any other muscle, none of this '100 sit ups at the end'. You work your hip extensors for 3 sets at 4 reps for max strength, so why should your core be any different. HOWEVER, I do recommend functional/pre hab training which does focus alot on the core. For example as I stated on another thread, the use of transverse abdominis exercises can be very useful in strengthening the deep core and thus lumbar spine.

I would say the plan outlined is suitable for someone who has experience of weight lifting free weights and is comfortable with the basic technical elements of being able to keep a neutral back. Natural strength and such does not make any difference, the benefits are for everyone.

I relation to the high rep endurance work this is a tough one and many people use the 'well how can it be better when I do 1000s of reps on a bike'. The argument is valid and coaches do not agree over this one. However, we could make the same argument with max strength training, i.e 'how does lifting a heavy weight for 4 reps help me during a marathon' but we know it does. The effect of the higher rep work in comparison to low rep work is that a lot more metabolic adaptations occur at the muscles due to the high intensity of the sessions (highlighted by a high average HR). Such adaptations would include improved delivery of substances to muscles and possibly increased buffering capacity (ability to delay fatigue at high intensity) and a shift in muscle fibre expression to more fatigue resistant types. These have been shown to result in increased aerobic power and time to fatigue in comparison to heavy lifting. So imagine this high rep training is required to turn the maximal strength into faitgue resistance strength, so that you can produce high forces over a prolonged period. Or imagine it as trading in your rocket car for a Le Mans car Smile. Tighing this into the original question look at it this way, which rider will have greater force production late in a race (they have same body mass, composition, fitness etc), one who can do 18 dumbbell lunges with 20kg, or the on who can only do 12 reps at 20kg? This training allows you to begin with greater strength while maintaining faitgue resistance, thus greater performance during a race. Also such sessions are highly effective at fat loss. In fact in America one of the leading trainers Alwyn Cosgrove uses this training method very effectively to trigger fat loss in athletes and normal people.

Finally in relation to a TDF rider his legs are of course skinnier than a bodybuilder. Please remember what I have suggested is to improve strength not non-functional muscle mass. Strength is a product of neurological responses, we are training these, not using the training to make big legs like a bodybuilder. If I was going to make you look like a beefcake I would not use anything like the above approach. Let me reiterate the difference between strength training for sport performance and bodybuilding is huge. Therefore, a TDF rider is indredibly strong, utilising the use of all his muscle fibers highly effectively. A bodybuilder is strong, however he has lots of non-functional muscle mass (i.e. it does not contribute much to movement) due to his training methods, thus meaning deadweight. Therefore you could say, relative to body mass and muscle fibre type expession a TDF rider is stronger than a bodybuilder and alot lot lot lot lot more fatigue resistant Smile

To show this here are two videos to roughly illustrate what I am getting at. Two guys squating the same max squat, however, look at the difference in body weight:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-f7T4EP4Mc

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7b1Oz_ptaW8

This highlights strength over body mass, i.e. despite the one guy being 11kg lighter and less developed, he squats the same for one rep, illustrating his superior strength..
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Last edited by Elev8Performance on Fri Jul 25, 2008 12:04 pm; edited 5 times in total
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Elev8Performance




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PostPosted: Fri Jul 25, 2008 11:19 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks for adding it to that thread Andy!

P.S I am shattered after writting that above post! Laughing Hope it answers things clearly.
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younggun




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PostPosted: Sat Jul 26, 2008 12:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Rolling Eyes

Elev8Performance wrote:
Therefore, a TDF rider is indredibly strong, utilising the use of all his muscle fibers highly effectively.
Put some numbers on it, say a world class 60kg climber, what sort of weight do you think they could squat - ballpark? Someone like Sastre?

If you took a 60kg age group triathlete, lean but not that fit (say middle of the pack), presumeably you'd say they would squat a much lower weight?
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Elev8Performance




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PostPosted: Sun Jul 27, 2008 2:06 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Although there is no data on elite competitors, anecdotal evidence has shown even well trained amateur triathletes and endurance athletes can squat ~1-1.5 times body weight. Therefore a elite/world class competitor should be capable of ~1.5-2 times body weight. Why you might ask? Simple, as we know that a key performance distinguisher is leg power output (shown from lab and SRM data e.g. http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2002/acsms/Papers/Mason1.asp), this is in part a product of strength, so if you have clearly greater leg power you are likely to have greater leg strength (in addition to the ability to perform work faster). Therefore this would in part show in a greater squat result. This study is an example: http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/200120/000020012001A0738806.php

In relation to your question, I could not say your example athlete is better than the other purely because of strength and power. This could possibly be due to greater aerobic capacity, economy, critical power, anaerobic threshold etc. Although as stated it is possibly that strength is a discriminating factor due to the importance of sustained power during each discipline.

I am not sure what you are trying to argue, I have answered your questions with sound rationale and have a stack of research that is peer reviewed and anecdotal (including my own) to prove my points and that strength training can improve triathlon and other endurance sports performance at elite and non elite standards. Furthermore, consider that many if not all elite competitors will perform strength training, for example through strength and conditioning support from the English and Australian Institutes of Sport. Funding for this area is huge, in fact more than physiological support. If you honestly thought this type of training was not effective and had no research to back this up, do you genuinely think they would do this?
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younggun




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PostPosted: Sun Jul 27, 2008 7:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I feel like I've been a bit argumentative recently, I'd hoped with that by answering my questions you'd clarify your arguments better but since you haven't it seems I can't avoid debating this now.

I'm not anti weight training per-se. For sure it's great for people with injuries to strengthen support groups. There have been some studies that show weight training can increase economy - but a lot of studies also show it has no effect on economy. Improving economy will make you quicker but there seems to be more reliable ways of doing this than weight training (e.g. plyometrics).

I'm a big fan of core work, particularly to improve the swim stroke, but also for bike and run economy.

What I challenge is the argument made several times here, that if you increase an athlete's maximal strength, their power output in an endurance event therefore increases because the athlete can generate greater forces. This is entirely false:

Elev8Performance wrote:
Why you might ask? Simple, as we know that a key performance distinguisher is leg power output (shown from lab and SRM data e.g. http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2002/acsms/Papers/Mason1.asp)
No arguments here, if you increase your continuous power output you go faster continuously, yes.

Note two other very relevant results from this study:

- that 40K TT performance was heavily correlated with lactate threshold and VO2 max.
- that max power to weight ratio (r = 0.0) was poorly correlated with 40K TT speed.

The second of these two results shows that max power is not linked to TT speed - this directly contradicts your assertions that it is. Hoisted by your own petard?

The first point is a very common finding from such studies, speed in endurance events is highly correlated with lactate threshold. Lactate threshold is a function of your ability to release energy continuously from energy stores. Even at elite levels of power output at lactate threshold, the force requirements are low Ė well within an athletes max strength (very approx 30% of it). You first study shows that if you increase your max strength it doesnít affect your lactate threshold. i.e. itís not possible to produce a higher force continuously despite a higher peak strength. Therefore maximum strength is not relevant to endurance athletes (who donít require to sprint at the end of the race like a TDF sprinter).

Elev8Performance wrote:
...so if you have clearly greater leg power you are likely to have greater leg strength (in addition to the ability to perform work faster). Therefore this would in part show in a greater squat result. This study is an example: http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/200120/000020012001A0738806.php
This study only shows that your sprint speed increases during endurance events if you weight train. Anyone whoís tried inserting sprints during an endurance timetrial (e.g. triathlon) event will tell you itís a disaster for your overall performance.

Elev8Performance wrote:
Furthermore, consider that many if not all elite competitors will perform strength training, for example through strength and conditioning support from the English and Australian Institutes of Sport. Funding for this area is huge, in fact more than physiological support. If you honestly thought this type of training was not effective and had no research to back this up, do you genuinely think they would do this?
Most athletes at major competitions (swimmers, cyclists, runners) are sprinters, so of course strength work is important to them.

In particular situations I believe strength work can be beneficial to endurance athletes for the reasons I stated in my second paragraph.

Old-school coaches undoubtedly have an influence on practises.

But clearly many champion endurance athletes do not weight train at all (Simon Lessing being a great example) and the most successful triathlon coach of all time (Brett Sutton) who has produced countless world champions and Olympic medallists does not use weight training as a matter of course with this athletes. (he refers to them as 'beach weights') So, itís clear to me that weight training is not essential for world class endurance performances but it may help in specific areas at specific times.

But... we do know that actually swimming, cycling and running improve triathlon performance. This is easy to prove with data and anecdotally. Since mostly age group athletes are very time strapped, unless they have a specific reason (e.g. to fix an injury), it seems they should be spending less time in the gym and more time doing their sports. That's obviously my personal coaching philosophy, I respect others may differ but that's my opinion.

Adam

BTW, we've had this debate countless times on the forum.
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Elev8Performance




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PostPosted: Mon Jul 28, 2008 10:56 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I did not say strength per se results in increased power i stated that to see the increased power you would also have to improve the velocity at which the movement is performed. Note this is addressed in the periodised programme and would further be supplemented through plyometrics (the term strength training refers to all associated elements including power and endurance included)

Yes power:weight was not correlated with performance, but my argument was not about maximal power, but sustainable power/endurance. The study still states power output (not maximal) is correlated, as you agreed. Strength training is not ONLY about maximal loads, in fact my periodised plan does not focus on max power at all (3-4 reps of a heavy weight lifted at high velocity), it focuses on high velocity muscular endurance (high reps and high velocity, lower loading). Some coaches call this power endurance, although I do not, as the power output due to the low loading is not huge and the adaptations to this type of training are greater than power alone. Consequently this training does address sub maximal power (ability to sustain power over a race i.e endurance), which your statement and the studies findings agree influence performance. Furthermore relating to the second study I cited which you bought up, that highlights how resistance training increased BLa during performance, which would suggest greater tolerance by an increased threshold, which as you previously mentioned is highly correlated with performance. May I also add the study was not a sprint study like you claim, as BLa was obtained during incremental exercise (like a vo2max test).

You are seeing this to black and white, you are looking at this training as big heavy weights. Strength training for endurance performance is about periodisation, making sure improvements from maximal lifting are adapted into endurance. Your arguments completely ignore this part, only focusing on the foundation.

To say the core does not effect performance is crazy especially during triathlon! Its like having two bottles supported by a middle/core of jelly. During running and cycling a stable core ensures that the hips can effectively transfer power through the legs to the bike/road. Unstable hips, characterised by poor core stability would result in being less efficient. Look at it like this, your core stabilises the trunk, in fact the transverse abdominis is one of the first activated muscles during ANY movement, in order to ensure the trunk is stable. Thus during trunk stability (required during running swimming and cycling) the core muscles have to be activated significantly, otherwise the core would not be stable (it would flex, extend, hyper extend, rotate). This would increase the amount of work the hip would have to do (as illustrated in uphill running due to greater hip moment) resulting in faster fatigue of the hip extensor muscles (the major muscle group for running) and poorer performance. Furthermore poor stability and mobility of the areas from the anklel through the lumbar spine up to the shoulder joint are heavily linked to back pain and poor mobility in the hips/pelvis, scapula and shoulders (somewhat appropriate for the whole body nature and varying movements of triathlon don't you think?). Our bodies are a chain, connected to each other in some way (hip extensors connected to the shoulder joint through the pelvis, lumbar, thoracic and thoracic scapulo regions). A weakness in middle 'core' is undoubtedly going to hinder movement when energy is transferred through the core (i.e. during triathlon).

Yes, there are endurance athletes who perform very little to no strength based training. However many are not so blessed and have to use strength training to supplement performance to ensure they are competing competitively within their standard. Some athletes are born with exceptional capacity or function in relation to specific variables which are key to endurance performance, others are less fortunate. Again, strength training address some of the many variables which influence endurance performance. Consider two athletes similar physically and physiologically. However athlete 'a' may have great strength and power which they were born with and was trained steadily over the years via endurance training. However athlete 'b' may not be so lucky and a couple of percent off, so to get up to that same level he requires additional strength training.

A common cause of injuries is weakness and mobility issues of muscles no question! How can we address this, yes strength training! We know this training is highly effective at reducing injury rates, so yet another benefit.

Its easy to pick away at little bits of a concept, you can do that with anything, the key is to look at the concept as a whole. So lets:

Strength training for endurance sport...

- Focuses on sport specific functional endurance lifting, maximal loading
is only required to lay the foundations.
- Can reduce injury rates significantly
- Improve performance (also look beyond the old fashioned research
variables but also more functional specific measures e.g. sustained
ground force reaction, improved biomechanics)
- Places less loading on joints in comparison to running so can be used in addition
- Requires only 80-90 additional minutes of training per week (~2x40-45
min sessions)

Understand as a modern forward thinking strength and conditioning coach we look at the body and athletic performance as a whole/holistically from all angles. In contrast to academic research and past thinking which generally only looks at the picture from a single, immediate perspective. Your views seem aimed at an old fashioned weights coach. I mean the term beach weights is a bodybuilding term stating its all about looks, as I have endlessly explained strength and conditioning today is not, its about performance.

Look at the concept as a whole and you cannot repute the benefits. Show me one case where properly periodised, sports specific strength training has not worked in endurance sport, I and my colleagues could show you plenty that have.
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AndyS.




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PostPosted: Mon Jul 28, 2008 12:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

All very interesting listening to you two debate this out. But I have to admit, it's over my head (by quite a way!). Let me get all specific to me for a moment and hog the lime light. I'm not a small chap at 90kg+ and have no problems gaining muscle/strength. I can put out over 1000 watts on the bike for a short time (5 seconds or so) but can't hold 200 watts for more than a couple of hours, my energy system gives up and I have to back it off. To me that doesn't suggest I need more muscle, it says I need more engine. Or do I need more muscle? I'm sure I have enough of it, to be honest. I don't do any weights and haven't done more than a dozen sessions on the weights since beginning in the sport 4 years ago. This is where I get confused, I'd have thought spending the time I would be in the gym lifting weights would be better spend doing more aerobic workouts to improve the engine?
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Elev8Performance




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PostPosted: Mon Jul 28, 2008 12:28 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Andy, to answer your questions and from what you say:

- You are staying that you are wanting to increase your ability to perform high intensity exercise for a prolonged period. To develop this you want to improve your anaerobic threshold (point at which anaerobic metabolism has to play a significant role in energy metabolism, this increases lactate production sharply and fatigue sets in quicker). This is why the threshold is considered important for many sports. Normal training to improve this involves exercise at the threshold (generally around 80-85% max HR). By increasing the threshold you increase the intensity at which you can exercise before your anaerobic metabolism has to jump up and start contributing much more.

- You don't need any more muscle, what you want to work on is increasing the ability of the muscles to generate strength and power. The ability to generate strength and power is more about utilizing the capacity of the muscle as much as possible rather than just increasing size, as increased size doesn't guarantee improved strength and power because it is unlikely to be functional (not contribute towards movement, so it is dead weight). Therefore you want to improve what you already have by increasing neurological function (just think of it as the electricity that supplies your muscles). So you want to increase electricity supply and the rate/speed at which you can supply this, rather than increasing the size of the appliance/muscle. You want to ensure that this can be done over a prolonged period too rather than just a short burst, this is why i talk about turning max strength into muscular endurance (in order to sustain power and strength over time).This is one part of what makes strength training for sport performance different to body building. Furthermore this training can possibly increase anaerobic threshold once you begin the muscular endurance element of the training.

Hope I have explained that in an understandable way Smile
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